The endocannabinoid system (ECS)

The endocannabinoid system is a nerve signaling system throughout the human body that helps maintain physiological, emotional and cognitive stability.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) operates as a Global Protection System for the body.  It fosters a sense of well-being that is difficult to quantify. It is difficult to describe the benefits of Players Choice CBD hemp extract products because there are many

factors in helping people feel better. Poets and songwriters have inadequately attempted for centuries to connect words to convey love.  In the same way, for lack of sufficient words and for the desire of an album full of ballads to describe how great our products are, I will resort instead to the words of science to explain how people feel better about life after using our products. The following report is a sort of a “cliff notes” from which more detailed explanations can be extracted, using this as a guideline.  

In the human body, there are 12 distinct life-support systems. 11 of the 12 systems are the same ones you learned about in high school biology class. There is, however, one more system which, was not discovered until the late 1980s. The newly discovered endocannabinoid system acts as a governor and coordinator of all the other body systems you are already familiar with. 

The ECS functions through its ability to modulate over 200 different metabolites and enzymes which are ALL essential to a healthy, fulfilling, enjoyable life. The ECS coordinates all the other life support systems of the body, and its functions can be broken into four major roles of action; eating, cognition, relaxation, protection.

The ECS has two major components that confer its excellent functioning and ability to affect health through the balancing of the body’s 12 life-support systems. The first of the two parts is peptides called ligands, which trigger the receptors in the ECS. The ligands responsible for activating the ECS are AEA and 2-AG. The receptors of the ECS are CB1, CB2, CB3, CB4, CB5, GABA, and Serotonin receptors.

The reason hemp extracts have been historically sought after is for their ability to interact with the ECS receptors. ECS receptors are triggered without hemp extracts by the endogenous version of endocannabinoids known as arachidonoylethanolamide (also known as anandamide or AEA). AEA has been touted as the “bliss hormone” because of its ability to bring about a sense of well-being challenging to put to words.  The other ligand is scientifically named 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG). 

In a nutshell, ligands have an array of functions in the body.  Ligands are chemical keys that trigger receptors in the brain, spleen, heart, and uterus to name a few.  These compounds are created on-demand in the phospholipid bilayer of post-synaptic neurons.  The function of ligands in the body is to decrease pain, nausea, brain damage, wasting, and anxiety. They also can increase communication of the amygdala, and frontal cortex, resulting in faster learning increased exploratory behavior. Whether decreasing functions or increasing them, ligands work by generally calming neuron function. 

The connection between the ECS and hemp

In the human body, the greatest number and density of ECS receptors are found in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. There are no receptors in the brainstem, which is why hemp extract is so safe, even if it is consumed in high doses. Without ECS receptors on the brainstem, there is no risk of breathing suppression or heart rate changes. 

Cannabinoid receptors are a class of receptors referred to as G-coupled receptors.  They are ubiquitously distributed in all organs and tissues. Different receptor types are found in clusters throughout different areas of the body. Below you will find a summary of receptor types and their functions.

CB1 receptor – Most densely distributed receptor in the brain, also found in adipocytes (fat cells), hepatocytes (liver), skeletal muscle, bone marrow, basophils (immune cells), peripheral nerves (nerves other than found in the brain or spinal cord), uterus,, adrenals, lungs, bladder, mast cells

CB1 ligands – 2-AG, AEA, THC, CBD, terpenes

CB1 receptor functions – temperature regulation, emotion, learning, memory, sleep, pain response, language development, musical talent, appetite, protective against neurodegeneration, nausea, and the effects of nerve damage

Animals genetically modified to remove CB1 receptors are: more anxious, depressed, increased morbidity, increased mortality, fail to enjoy pleasure, are more afraid, and have both difficulties with learning and unlearning fear.

CB2 receptor – found in the immune system and nerve system

CB2 ligands – AEA, 2-AG, THC, CBD, Echinacea, Caryophyllene

CB2 receptor functions – protect against osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, pain, liver disease, neurodegeneration, metabolic disorders, inflammation, regulate cytokine activity

CB3 – a very specific receptor for THC, yet 85% different morphology than CB1 receptors

CB4 & CB5 – still in the early phases of research

The problem we solve

Because the ECS was undiscovered for so many years, we now need a new way of looking at the issues of health and disease.  The pharmaceutical for every disease approach should be left to the medical doctors. We wish to promote a new daily supplement to prevent a pandemic of Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome.  Endocannabinoid Deficiency Syndrome is a suboptimal functioning of the Endocannabinoid System which may be linked to migraines, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, anxiety, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, motion sickness, anorexia, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, failure to thrive syndrome. 

There are 3 Keyways to improve Endocannabinoid System function

  1. Increase ECS ligand synthesis and generation
  2. Decrease ligand degeneration
  3. Increase receptor number, density, and function

Ways to modulate ECS function

  1. Omega-3
  2. Probiotics
  3. Herbal agonists – curcumin, black pepper, Echinacea, copal, yangonin, thujone
  4. Massage
  5. Exercise
  6. Stress
  7. Opiates
  8. Phthalates (herbicides)
  9. Alcohol
  10. Caffeine
  11. Increased adipose tissue
  12. Breast milk

What does CBD do?

The human body contains more cannabinoid receptors than any other receptors and cannabinoid receptors are the most abundant receptors in the brain. Cannabinoid receptors are also found in other mammals, fish, birds, and reptiles. Such ubiquitous endogenous cannabinoids act as natural molecules, creating a vital lipid-signaling system, termed the endocannabinoid system (ECS). However, existing enzymes have to maintain balance in the signaling network by degrading these molecules. The two most commonly known cannabinoid receptors are CB1 and CB2.

Human Endocannabinoid System – Endocannabinoid System horizontal infographic illustration about cannabis as herbal alternative medicine and chemical therapy, healthcare and medical science vector.

CB1 receptors are mostly found on the plasma membrane of neurons, located in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and being more abundant towards the neurons’ synaptic terminals. CB1 receptors were also found in multiple tissues outside of the nervous system, such as the skin, the liver, the gastrointestinal tract, the musculoskeletal system, and membranes of different immune cells. CB1 receptors are activated by endocannabinoids, neurotransmitters, such as Anandamide (ANA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), and by phytocannabinoids, such as THC and CBD.

CB2 receptors can be found in all structures where CB1 receptors are present and is closely akin to CB1 receptors. CB2 receptors seem to play a more critical role in inflammation and pain and are increasingly recognized as a neuroinflammation biomarker.

Endocannabinoids are naturally produced by our bodies to activate the cannabinoid receptors but when our endocannabinoids are deficient, we experience clinical endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome (CECD). CECD has been linked to many disorders, such as post-traumatic distress (PTSD), fibromyalgia, inflammation, anxiety, and psoriasis.

This is where CBD can help us. Being a cannabinoid which resembles endocannabinoids allows it to behave in the same way. CBD can supplement a deficient ECS, and stimulate the cannabinoid receptors that are in need of support, such as dopamine, GPR55, TRPV1, glycine, adenosine, and many others. By helping restore balance in your body, CBD can help reduce the risk of getting many chronic conditions.

The ECS is a critical homeostatic regulator in the body, affecting almost everyone’s physiological system. By understanding this system, we are able to see a way of connecting brain activity to physical health and disease (Bradley E. Alger, 2013).

Illnesses Associated with Endocannabinoid Deficiency

migraines, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, anxiety, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, motion sickness, anorexia, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, failure to thrive syndrome.

Systems of the Human Body

  1. Circulatory system:
  2. Digestive system:
  3. Endocrine system:
  4. Integumentary Exocrine system:
  5. Lymphatic Immune system:
  6. Muscular system:
  7. Nervous system:
  8. Renal system / Excretory system:
  9. Reproductive system:
  10. Respiratory system:
  11. Skeletal system:
  12. Endocannabinoid System

The bottom line

The ECS plays a big role in keeping your internal processes stable. But there’s still a lot we don’t know about it. As experts develop a better understanding of the ECS, it could eventually hold the key to treating many conditions.